C3. Assessing the severity of COPD
Spirometry is the most reproducible, standardised and objective way of measuring airflow limitation, and FEV1 is the variable most closely associated with prognosis (Peto 1983). The grades of severity according to FEV1 and the likely symptoms and complications are shown in Box 4. However, it should be noted that some patients with an FEV1 >80% predicted, although within the normal range, may have airflow limitation (FEV1/FVC ratio <70%).
A Spanish cohort study of 611 COPD patients found that the British Thoracic Society classification (which is very similar to Box 4) had the optimal sensitivity and specificity against the criterion of all cause and respiratory mortality over 5 years (Esteban 2009). There were also significant differences in health related quality of life between different stages of the disease [evidence level III-2].
Exacerbations are an important complication of COPD (see X: Manage eXacerbations). The future risk of exacerbations should be assessed in patients with COPD (Global Initative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2016). Exacerbations are more frequent with increased severity of COPD. The most important risk factor for exacerbations is a history of past exacerbations; other factors include gastro-oesophageal reflux, poorer quality of life and elevated white cell count (Hurst 2010).
|Typical Symptoms||Few symptoms||Increasing dyspnoea||Dyspnoea on minimal exertion|
|Breathlessness on moderate exertion||Breathlessness walking on level ground||Daily activities severely curtailed|
|Little or no effect on daily activities||Cough and sputum production||Chronic cough|
|Infections requiring steroids|
|Lung Function||FEV1 ≈ 60-80% predicted||FEV1 ≈ 40-59% predicted||FEV1 < 40% predicted|
|FEV1=forced expiratory volume in one second. Pao2=partial pressure of oxygen, arterial. Paco2=partial pressure of carbon dioxide, arterial.|
Box 4 adapted from Lung Foundation Australia’s Stepwise Management of Stable COPD available at http://lungfoundation.com.au/health-professionals/guidelines/copd/stepwise-management-of-stable-copd/